The International Law of Cyber Operations Executive Course addressed the main international legal regimes that regulate state conduct in cyberspace. The first half of the course examines the law applicable to cyber operations during peacetime, whereas the second half focuses on various specialised regimes of international law as applied in the cyber context.



The course sought to up-skill to effectively engage with the international community to develop the normative architecture governing cyberspace and state behaviour, in particular public international law, with the aim of securing individuals online, and to prevent and mitigate transnational cybercrime and cybersecurity breaches.

It also helped to foster better engagement from states in the continued development of a common understanding on how international law regulates states’ activities in cyberspace, protects human rights online, and prevents, and enables them to mitigate cyber threats.


The topics covered by the course included sovereignty, due diligence, self-defence and international human rights law in cyberspace, the prohibition of cyber intervention and of cyber use of force, the jurisdiction over cyber crimes and the responsibility of states for cyber operations.


30 participants among governmental legal advisers, diplomats, policy makers, law enforcement personnel, high-level executives and other involved in cyber affairs from countries across Sub-Saharan Africa benefitted from the executive course.


The course took place in Accra, Ghana, for 5 days: from 14 to 18 of November. It included two practitioner-oriented exercises, the first one on peacetime international law and the second one on specialised legal regimes, to enable the application of the legal principles and rules examined to fictional, but realistic, cyber incident scenarios. This training employed an interactive teaching style that encourages active student participation.

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